Trending Cardiac Biomarkers During Pregnancy in Women With Cardiovascular Disease

Circulation: Heart Failure, Ahead of Print.
Background:Clinical utility of cardiac biomarker testing during pregnancy in women with preexisting cardiac disease is not well known. We studied the levels and temporal trends of NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) and hs-cTnI (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I) throughout pregnancy in women with preexisting cardiac disease and sought to assess the association between NT-proBNP and hs-cTnI and pregnancy outcomes.Methods:Three hundred seven pregnant women with preexisting cardiac disease were prospectively recruited. Mixed-effects linear regression analysis was used to compare the NT-proBNP and hs-cTnI levels between time periods and subgroups. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for maternal age and CARPREG II (Cardiac Disease in Pregnancy) risk score assessed the association between NT-proBNP levels and adverse events.Results:Geometric mean NT-proBNP (95% CI) was stable through pregnancy with a transient significant increase with labor and delivery (101.4 pg/mL [87.1–118.1], 90.2 pg/mL [78.5–103.6], 153.6 pg/mL [126.8–186.1], and 112.2 pg/mL [94.2–133.7] for first/second trimester, third trimester, labor/delivery and postpartum, respectively). We observed a statistically significant difference in the NT-proBNP between women with preserved versus decreased systemic ventricular function, structurally normal versus abnormal heart, modified World Health Organization class 1, 2 versus modified World Health Organization class 3, 4 and no congenital heart disease versus congenital heart disease. Compared to those without events, median (interquartile range) NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher in those who had heart failure (204 pg/mL [51–450] versus 55 pg/mL [31–97];P=0.001) and preeclampsia (98 pg/mL [40–319] versus 55 pg/mL [31–99];P=0.027). NT-proBNP, adjusted for age and CARPREG II risk score, was significantly associated with combined heart failure and preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.14 [95% CI, 1.48–3.10] per log NT-proBNP increase;P<0.001). NT-proBNP <200 pg/mL had a specificity of 91% and negative predictive value of 95% in predicting combined heart failure and preeclampsia.Conclusions:NT-proBNP remains steady over the course of pregnancy with a transient increase during labor and delivery with higher levels in subgroups of stable cardiac patients. NT-proBNP level of 200 pg/mL can be used in the diagnosis of heart failure/preeclampsia in the pregnant cardiac population.

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